STEPPER MOTOR BASICS - 4 WIRES BIPOLAR MOTOR example.
The basics on how stepper motor, stepper controller, and stepper driver work.
NOTE: There are slight differences on how the different variant of stepper motors work (i.e. the 4 wires, 5 wires and 6 wires stepper motors). So do check out my other instructable videos on these motors to learn more.
Stepper motor is an impressive piece of engineering. Instead of making full turns like a normal motor, stepper motor make steps, one small degree at a time. It is commonly used in photocopy machines, printers, CNC machines, robotics, etc where precision motion (steps) and controls are needed.
Stepper motors fall into 3 main categories namely Unipolar, Bipolar, or Hybrid (Unipolar + Bipolar).
- A Unipolar stepper motor must be driven in Unipolar mode;
- A Bipolar stepper motor must be driven in Bipolar mode;
- A Hybrid stepper motor can be driven in Unipolar or Bipolar mode.
- Although in reality there are several set of coils in a stepper motor forming what is known as a phase, for understanding purposes it is best to imagine that there are just 4 coils in a stepper motor.
- If any one of the coil is energized, the motor will make one step, then stays in that place (after 1 step is completed).
- In order for the motor to complete one full revolution, it needed to make multiple steps. The coils need to be energized in the proper sequence to achieve this.
- Check out the video to see how everything works.